|Task B: Airworthiness Requirements (ASEL and ASES)
References: 14 CFR parts 39, 91; FAA-H-8083-25.
Objective: To determine that the applicant exhibits satisfactory knowledge of the elements related to airworthiness requirements by:
|Private Pilot PTS||You need to be able to answer these questions from memory||What you need to do to prepare|
a. required instruments and equipment for day/night VFR.
||See AFM Chapter 2 Kinds of Operations limits, AFM Chapter 6 Equipment List required items and 14 CFR 91.205. Use this memory aid for 91.205 items:
|b. procedures and limitations for determining airworthiness of the airplane with inoperative instruments and equipment with and without an MEL.||
||Study 14 CFR 91.213 and AC 91-67 for the inoperative equipment decision making sequence which is encapsulated in this table:
For MEL questions, its typical for the examiner to ask if your aircraft has an MEL, which as you see from 91.213 is the first question to answer in determining airworthiness with inoperative equipment. Its very unlikely that your training airplane is operating under an MEL, which is distinctively different from the Kinds of Operation limits that may be in Chapter 2 of your airplane’s AFM, or the equipment list published in Chapter 6 of your airplane’s AFM.
MEL is defined in AC 91-67.
The MEL is the specific inoperative equipment document for a particular make and model aircraft by serial and registration numbers; e.g., BE-200, N12345. A FAR Part 91 MEL consists of the MMEL for a particular type aircraft, the MMEL’s preamble, the procedures document, and a LOA. The FAA consider the MEL as an SC. As such, the MEL permits operation of the aircraft under specified conditions with certain equipment inoperative.
The FAA publishes master MELs (MMELs) for aircraft that are typically operated under a certificate (Part 121 or 135). Here’s the master MEL for the Cessna 208 Caravan. Note that the terminology used in the remarks column indicates when equipment may be inoperative and flight can still occur, usually with a limitation on what type of operation can be conducted (for instance only Day VFR). Print out a page of this MEL and bring with you to the practical exam to demonstrate your understanding of an MEL.
|c. requirements and procedures for obtaining a special flight permit.||You need to be able to respond to this scenario:
You are a proud airplane owner, but you were busy with work during the time your aircraft’s annual expired. There is no mechanic on the field, and you need to fly the airplane to a nearby airport to have the annual performed. How do you go about accomplishing this legally?
|See 14 CFR 21.197 and 21.199 for conditions under which a special flight permit are issued.
Practically speaking, your mechanic will assist in the procurement of the special flight permit, working with the local FSDO. Here’s a guide for obtaining a ferry permit, published by the Fairbanks FSDO.
Note that typically the FSDO will require that a mechanic inspect and certify that the aircraft is safe for the requested flight.
|2. Locating and explaining—a. airworthiness directives.||
||An airworthiness directive (AD) is a regulatory notice sent out by the FAA to the registered owner of an aircraft informing the owner of a condition that prevents the aircraft from continuing to meet its conditions for airworthiness. See 14 CFR 39 for the a more detailed definition of an AD and the associated compliance requirements.
During your annual inspection, your mechanic will check your aircraft, engine, propeller and any other components to determine if there are ADs that apply. The mechanic will typically produce a compliance record detailing the applicability, status, and next due date or time if appropriate.You need to be familiar with this list, and especially for recurring ADs, you need to know when they are next due.
You can look up current ADs at this FAA website.
Here’s a link to a recently issued AD that applies to late model Cessnas, including the 172 R and S models.
|b. compliance records.||
||See 14 CFR 91.417
Here is an example logbook entry for an annual inspection:
March 22, 20XX Total Aircraft Time 1,502.0 Hours Tach Time 972.4 Hours I certify that this aircraft has been inspected in accordance with an annual inspection as per Air Tractor AT502 owner’s manual and was determined to be in an airworthy condition. Joseph P. Kline A&P 123467899 IA
Note that the letters A&P stand for Airframe and Powerplant, a rating on a mechanic certificate. IA stands for Inspection Authorization, an additional rating. Mechanics with an A&P certificate can only certify a 100-hour inspection. Mechanics with an IA certification can certify both 100-hour and annual inspections.
|c. maintenance/inspection requirements.||
||For VFR flight, see 14 CFR 91.409, 91.413 and 91.207 for required inspections.
You can use this memory aid to help remember the required inspections:
See 14 CFR 43 Appendix D for a list of items inspected during an annual and 100-hour inspection.
Be sure to know when an ELT is not required. 14 CFR 91.207 lists a number of exceptions.
ELT batteries are labeled with their expiration date by the MFR. This date is half of the useful life of the battery.
Complete this Practical Exam Airworthiness Sheet a few weeks before your practical exam to become familiar with the aircraft’s logbooks and to ensure that there are not inspection requirements that could delay your practical exam.
|d. appropriate record keeping.||
||See section C of 14 CFR 43 Appendix A for a list of the preventative maintenance tasks you can perform as a private pilot.
See 14 CFR 43.9 for the content and form of maintenance records.