Unit 2 – The Four Fundamentals in Three Dimensions

Preflight Exercises

Conduct the preflight inspection

Sit in the airplane and become familiar with every knob and switch.

Dry-run through the following checklists (touch, but don’t change)

  • Engine start
  • Run-up
  • Takeoff
  • 1,000 AGL
  • Before Landing

Walk the traffic pattern on the ramp, talking through the radio announcements made in the traffic pattern.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics Lift

  • What are the factors that determine how much lift an airfoil is generating?
  • Which of these factors can be controlled by the pilot?
  • How do flaps change the effectiveness of an airfoil?
  • What causes an airplane to turn?
PHAK Cover
Review 5-22 through 5-28, and Chapter 6 in the PHAK.
Aerodynamics Normal Takeoff

  • Describe the three phases of takeoff.
  • How do you position the yoke for neutral elevator?
  • Describe the takeoff attitude.
  • How does ground effect affect the airplane during rotation and takeoff?
  • Describe a Vx climb.
  • Describe a Vy climb.
  • What are the Vx and Vy airspeeds in your airplane?
  • Describe the four types of left turning tendencies and the phases of flight in which they are encountered.
  • Describe the common errors in the performance of a normal takeoff.
AFH Cover
Study Chapter 5 – Takeoff and Departure Climbs in the AFH.
Aerodynamics Four Fundamentals

  • Describe the common errors in the performance of:
    • Straight and level flight
    • Level Turns
    • Climbs and Climbing Turns
    • Descents and Descending Turns
AFH Cover
Review Chapter 3 in the AFH
Practical Knowledge Airplane Flight Manual

  • What are the chapter names in an AFM?
  • Describe your airplane’s limitations?
  • What do the colored arcs on an airspeed indicator mean?
Review Chapter 9 in the PHAK and your airplane’s AFH. Specifically, study Chapter 2 – Limitations in your airplane’s AFH.
Practical Knowledge Traffic Pattern

Your instructor will ask you to draw a traffic pattern on the board, labeling each leg. Your instructor will then help you personalize this pattern to Cameron Park with altitudes appropriate for initiating crosswind turns, traffic pattern altitude, and magnetic direction alignment, and landmarks that can be used for 45 degree leg entries, downwind and base.

AFH Cover
Study Chapter 7 in the AFH
Practical Knowledge Radio Phraseology

Be able to describe the four W’s of every radio broadcast, and the radio broadcasts for taxi, departure, arrival, and traffic pattern legs. You will practice these radio calls while walking around the traffic pattern on the ramp.

Study the Phonetic Alphabet to memorize the phonetic alphabet for letters and numbers.
coursesayitrightComplete Modules 1, 2 and 5 in AOPA’s Say It Right online course.
Practical Knowledge Chart Knowledge

Your instructor will ask you to interpret the airport information on the sectional chart for the Cameron Park and Rancho Murieta airports.

Your instructor will also ask you to draw the approaches into the pattern for these airports, and describe the radio calls associated with these entries. Additionally, you will identify landmarks that you will use to identify both direction and distance to these airports.

FAAStudy pages 1 through 36 of the FAA’s Aeronautical Chart User Guide.
sectionallegendStudy the San Francisco (SFO) sectional chart and chart legend until you can interpret the airport information for Cameron Park and Rancho Murieta without using the legend. You will need to be recognize most of the symbols detected on the legend, and will be tested on this during the knowledge and practical exam.
Decision Making and Risk Mgmt Special Emphasis Items

  • Describe the various procedures you will use for collision avoidance.
  • Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.
Flight Experience
Operation Expect to: Prepare by:
Preflight Inspection You will be conducting the preflight inspection. Your instructor will be asking you questions about the preflight issues you are looking for and to identify the location and purpose of different aircraft components.
Cockpit Quiz
  • How do you switch on the radio?
  • What is the difference between the ACTIVE and STBY frequency?
  • What’s the difference between the NAV and COM parts of the radio?
  • How do you enter a COM frequency?
  • How do you adjust the radio volume?
  • What is the intercom?
  • What is squelch?
  • How do you adjust the intercom volume and squelch?
  • What is the purpose of an audio panel?
  • How do listen to a radio that is not selected as your transmit radio? (N/A 152)
  • What are the modes available on the transponder?
  • What is the function of the interrogator light?
  • What is the function of the IDENT button?
  • Why does the transponder typically have ‘1200’ configured?
If training in the Cessna 152, study the MX 385 info sheet.

If training in the Cessna 172, study the guides for:

Engine Start You will start the engine, using the appropriating priming procedure, check engine gauges and lean the mixture for taxi.
Taxi You will make the determination of the appropriate runway to use for takeoff. You will transmit the pre-taxi announcement on the radio, allow the airplane to roll forward with slightly more than idle power, test the brakes, and then taxi to the appropriate runway for runup.
Run-Up You will perform the run-up using the checklist. Your instructor will ask you about acceptable and unacceptable conditions for items checked during run-up.
Departure Brief You will give the departure briefing for this flight, with a departure plan to the practice area. Study the departure briefing section on your checklist.
Before Takeoff Check You will perform the before takeoff check, including the collision avoidance scan. You will transmit the takeoff announcement on the CTAF. Study the before takeoff section of your checklist, including the radio announcement for takeoff.
Normal Takeoff During the takeoff roll, you will be controlling the rudders and calling out the rotation airspeed. The instructor will rotate the airplane and establish a stabilized climb, trim the airplane, and then return the airplane to you. Take note of how continuous right rudder input is needed to maintain heading and wing-level flight during climbout. Study the takeoff section of your checklist and the first 7 pages of Chapter 5 in the AFH.
Shallow Climbing Turns You will then practice turns and rudder coordination as you climb up to the practice area altitude. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Level-Off, Cruise Check, Straight and Level Level the airplane off using the sequence Pitch-Power-Trim, starting approximately 50 ft prior to the discussed altitude. Be sure to anticipate that you will need to increase forward pressure on the yoke to prevent the airplane from attempting to climb again, reducing power only once the airplane has achieved the desired low cruise airspeed, and finally trimming the airplane once the airspeed and the elevator force transmitted to the yoke and felt in your hands has stabilized. Review the cruise section of the checklist.
Shallow and Medium Turns to Heading You will practice shallow and medium bank turns, rolling out using the heading indicator to execute 90 degree changes in heading. Pay special attention to the use of rudder to maintain coordinated flight and elevator (back pressure) to slightly increase the angle of attack to maintain altitude, and especially the use of rudder when rolling the wings level. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Climbs and Descents using Trim to assigned Altitudes You will practice the Pitch-Power-Trim procedure to initiate a climb, and the Power-Pitch-Trim procedure to initiate a descent. The instructor will assign you to level-off at an altitude. Pay special attention to the need for rudder coordination during climbs and descents, anticipate leading the level-off by 10% of your rate of climb/descent, and stabilizing airspeed and control pressure before completely trimming the airplane for hands-off flight. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Flight at climb, cruise, cruise descent, pattern, and landing airspeeds The instructor will demonstrate how different power settings requires a different angle of attack to maintain altitude. The instructor will demonstrate the angle of attack sight picture for cruise climb, cruise flight, cruise descent, traffic pattern flight, and landing descent For the landing descent, the instructor will demonstrate the effect of flaps with a constant power setting, and the affect of power on a constant flap setting.

As the instructor demonstrates each attitude and configuration, you will make a table recording power setting, airspeed, visual pitch sight picture, and attitude indicator pitch indication.

You will then practice putting the airplane into each of these configurations.

Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Climbing and Descending Turns The instructor will demonstrate climbing left and right 90 degree heading change turns and wing-levels (think of a climbing turn from upwind to crosswind) and descending left and right turns and wing-levels in the landing configuration (think base to final turns). You will use both an outside visual reference and a determined heading as your rollout reference. You will then practice performing these turns and wing-levels. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Behind the Power Curve Slow Flight and Power Off Stall (Demo) Your instructor will demonstrate how the airplane performs a minimum control airspeed, and how the airplane responds during a power off stall and recovery.
Approach Briefing You will be responsible for giving the approach briefing as you return to the airport. Study the approach briefing section of your checklist.
Descending Turns You will practice making shallow left and right descending turns. Remember to watch the nose during these turns to determine the amount of rudder input needed to keep the nose pinned on a distant object as you roll the airplane from left to right and right to left. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Pattern Entry Your instructor will coach you through performance of the before landing and landing checklists, entry on the 45, and establishing downwind. Recall that the aircraft will be flying a lower power setting, requiring a higher angle of attack on downwind. Your instructor will transmit radio broadcasts on the CTAF to give your airplane’s location and intentions as you return to the airport, enter the pattern and land. Study the Before Landing and Landing checklists.
Normal Landing You will establish a stabilized approach, use of power to maintain a stable rate of descent. The instructor will assume control of the airplane prior to 200 AGL. You will call out when you feel the airplane should perform the level-off. Pay close attention to the nose attitude during the flare. You should be able to always see the departure end of the runway over the top of the nose.
Postflight Procedures You will taxi the airplane from the runway to the tiedown, executing the after landing checklist and shutdown checklists. Your instructor will help you push the airplane back into the tiedown, secure it, clean it and complete the post-flight section of the checklist. Study the after landing, shutdown and postflight sections of your checklist and review Chapter 2 in the AFH.