Unit 3 – It’s all about the angle

Preflight Exercises
Conduct the preflight inspection.

Dry-run through the following checklists

  • 1,000 AGL
  • Before Landing
  • HASEL
  • Slow Flight
  • Power Off Stall
  • Power On Stall

Walk the traffic pattern on the ramp, talking through the radio announcements and checklists executed in the traffic pattern.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics Stability

  • Describe the stability characteristics of an airplane around each axis.
  • Describe the design features of your aircraft that contribute to its inherent stability.

Drag

  • Describe the different types of aerodynamic drag that occur during flight.
  • Why does induced drag increase as airspeed decreases?
  • Why does parasite drag increase as airspeed increases?
  • Draw a total drag curve and explain the relationship between induced drag, parasite drag, and airspeed.
  • Drag a power required curve and explain the relationships between power required to maintain altitude, airspeed, angle of attack and drag.
  • Why does it take more and more power to maintain altitude when flying at airspeed slower than the maximum endurance speed? Why is this called the backside of the power curve?

Slow Flight

  • Describe the aerodynamic forces during flight at minimum control airspeed.
  • Describe the procedure for entry and recovery from slow flight.
  • While maintaining slow flight, how do you cause the airplane to climb? Descend?

Stalls

  • Describe flight operations in which stall awareness is needed.
  • Describe the angle of incidence.
  • Describe the relative wind.
  • Describe the angle of attack.
  • Draw the angle of attack in straight and level flight, climb, descent, and a level turn.
  • Describe what is happening to airflow over and under the wing during an aerodynamic stall
  • Describe the section of the wing in which a stall first starts to occur, and how the stall progresses across the wing
  • How does airplane weight affect the indicated airspeed at which the critical angle of attach is reached?
  • How does angle of bank affect the indicated airspeed at which the critical angle of attach is reached?
  • How does the amount of flap extension affect the indicated airspeed at which the critical angle of attach is reached?
  • Describe the flight control capabilities during a stall?
  • What are the signs of an impending stall?
  • How does an airplane recover from a stall?
  • Describe how to recover the airplane from a stall.
  • What is the purpose of power during a stall recovery?
  • Describe the procedure for entry and recovery from a power off stall.
  • Describe the procedure for entry and recovery from a power on stall.
Study PHAK Chapter 5, pages 5-1 through 5-22.

Study Chapter 4 – Slow Flight, Stalls and Spins in the AFH.

Study the sections on Stalls, Spins and Use of Flaps in your test preparation course.

Practical Knowledge Weight and Balance

  • Define empty weight, useful load and payload
  • How much does fuel weigh?
  • What is the empty weight of your airplane? Where did you obtain this?
  • What is the maximum weight for your airplane? Where did you obtain this?
  • What is included in the empty weight of your airplane?
  • What is a reference datum? Where is it located on your airplane?
  • What are the risks of a CG that is forward of the fore limit?
  • What are the risks of a CG that is aft of the fore limit?
  • What are the risks of an overweight airplane?
  • What are the benefits of a CG that is close, but not beyond the aft limit.
  • As fuel is burned during the flight, how does the CG shift?
  • Calculate weight and balance for this flight. Are we under max weight and within the CG envelope?
Study PHAK Chapter 5, pages 5-40 through 5-44.

Study Chapter 10 – Weight and Balance in the PHAK.

Study Chapter 6 in your airplane’s POH/AFM.

Decision Making and Risk Mgmt Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.
Flight Experience
Operation Expect to: Prepare by:
Preflight Inspection You will be conducting the preflight inspection. Your instructor will be asking you questions about the preflight issues you are looking for and to identify the location and purpose of different aircraft components.
Engine Start You will start the engine, using the appropriating priming procedure, check engine gauges and lean the mixture for taxi.
Taxi You will make the determination of the appropriate runway to use for takeoff. You will transmit the pre-taxi announcement on the radio, allow the airplane to roll forward with slightly more than idle power, test the brakes, and then taxi to the appropriate runway for runup.
Run-Up You will perform the run-up using the checklist. Your instructor will ask you about acceptable and unacceptable conditions for items checked during run-up.
Departure Brief You will give the departure briefing for this flight, with a departure plan to the practice area. Study the departure briefing section on your checklist.
Before Takeoff Check You will perform the before takeoff check, including the collision avoidance scan. You will transmit the takeoff announcement on the CTAF. Study the before takeoff section of your checklist, including the radio announcement for takeoff.
Normal Takeoff You will perform the takeoff. After the airplane lifts off, establish a Vx climb, then after clearing obstacles, establish a Vy climb. Complete the 1,000 AGL checklist and turn the airplane to the on-course heading. Study the takeoff section of your checklist and the first 7 pages of Chap 5 in the AFH.
Shallow Climbing Turns You will then practice turns and rudder coordination as you climb up to the practice area altitude. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Level-Off, Cruise Check, Straight and Level Level the airplane off using the sequence Pitch-Power-Trim, starting approximately 50 ft prior to the discussed altitude. Be sure to anticipate that you will need to increase forward pressure on the yoke to prevent the airplane from attempting to climb again, reducing power only once the airplane has achieved the desired low cruise airspeed, and finally trimming the airplane once the airspeed and the elevator force transmitted to the yoke and felt in your hands has stabilized. Review the cruise section of the checklist.
Climbing and Descending Turns You will practice climbing left and right 90 degree heading change turns and wing-levels (think of a climbing turn from upwind to crosswind) and descending left and right turns and wing-levels in the landing configuration (think base to final turns). You will use both an outside visual reference and a determined heading as your rollout reference. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Slow Flight You will perform the HASEL check. Your instructor will demo the entry into slow flight, shallow turns, climbs, descents, and then the recovery from slow flight. Pay special attention to the use of rudder needed to maintain heading during the entry and even just straight and level flight.

Your instructor will then coach you to transition the airplane from level cruise flight to slow flight, first in a clean configuration (flaps retracted) and then in a landing configuration (flaps extended).

Review the HASEL and Slow Flight maneuver checklist.
Approach to Landing Stalls (Power Off Stalls) You will perform the HASEL check. Your instructor will demonstrate the setup, initiation and recovery from a power off stall. Your instructor then coach you perform the setup, initiation and recovery from the stall. Review the HASEL and Power Off Stall maneuver checklist
Approach Briefing You will be responsible for giving the approach briefing as you return to the airport. Study the approach briefing section of your checklist.
Descending Turns You will practice making shallow left and right descending turns. Remember to watch the nose during these turns to determine the amount of rudder input needed to keep the nose pinned on a distant object as you roll the airplane from left to right and right to left. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Pattern Entry Your instructor will coach you through performance of the before landing and landing checklists, entry on the 45, and establishing downwind. You will transmit radio broadcasts on the CTAF to give your airplane’s location and intentions as you return to the airport, enter the pattern and land. Study the Before Landing and Landing checklists.
Normal Landing You will establish a stabilized approach, use of power to maintain a stable rate of descent. The instructor will assume control of the airplane prior to 200 AGL. You will call out when you feel the airplane should perform the level-off. Pay close attention to the nose attitude during the flare. You should be able to always see the departure end of the runway over the top of the nose.
Postflight Procedures You will taxi the airplane from the runway to the tiedown, executing the after landing checklist and shutdown checklists. Your instructor will help you push the airplane back into the tiedown, secure it, clean it and complete the post-flight section of the checklist. Study the after landing, shutdown and postflight sections of your checklist and Review Chapter 2 in the AFH.