Unit 4 – Lift, Load and Levels

Preflight Exercises
Complete the weight and balance portion of the Preflight Briefing Sheet.

Conduct the preflight inspection

Dry-run through the following checklists

  • Before Landing
  • Landing
  • HASEL
  • Slow Flight
  • Power Off Stall
  • Power On Stall
  • Steep Turns

Walk the traffic pattern on the ramp, talking through the radio announcements and checklists executed in the traffic pattern.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics Atmosphere and Altitudes

  • What is the international standard atmosphere (ISA)?
  • What is station pressure?
  • What is a local altimeter setting?
  • What is true altitude?
  • What is absolute altitude?
  • What is pressure altitude?
  • How do you calculate pressure altitude?
  • What is the standard pressure lapse rate?
  • What is density altitude?
  • How do you calculate density altitude?
  • How does density altitude affect the airplane?
  • What is the standard temperature lapse rate?
Review pages 4-1 – 4-5 in Chapter 4 in the PHAK.
Aerodynamics Load Factors

  • What is load factor?
  • What is the relationship between lift, weight and G-force?
  • What are the load factor limits for your airplane?
  • What is maneuvering speed?
  • Why does maneuvering speed decrease if the airplane weighs less than max gross weight?
  • What is the relationship between bank angle and load factor?
Study pages 5-33 – 5-38 in Chapter 5 of the PHAK. Study sections on load factor and maneuvering flight in your test preparation course
Aerodynamics Steep Turns

  • What is the load factor in a 45 degree bank? In a 60 degree bank?
  • What is the relationship between angle of bank, and angle of attack required to maintain altitude (level flight)?
  • What is overbanking tendency? When does it occur? How do you correct for it?
  • What is the procedure for establishing a steep turn?
  • During a steep turn to the left, how is each flight control used
  • During a steep turn to the right, how is each flight control used?
  • What is the procedure for rolling out of a steep turn?
Study pages 9-1 – 9-2 in Chapter 9 of the AFH.
Aerodynamics Skidding and Slipping Turns

  • During a skidding turn, which wing has a higher angle of attack?
  • During a skidding turn, if the wing is stalled, in which direction will the airplane yaw?
  • During a slipping turn, which wing has a higher angle of attack?
  • During a slipping turn, if the wing is stalled, in which direction will the airplane yaw?
Review pages 5-22 – 5-23 in Chapter 5 of the PHAK.
Practical Knowledge Traffic Pattern

  • Draw the traffic pattern, labeling each point in the traffic pattern with the heading, altitude, checklist procedure and radio call.
  • Describe a stabilized approach.
Study Before Landing and Landing checklists for your airplane.

Study Chapter 7 – Airport Traffic Patterns in the AFH.

View these UND Aerocast videos. Be advised that airspeeds mentioned in these videos may not be the same as used for your training airplane. Refer to your checklist for authoritative guidance.



Decision Making and Risk Mgmt
  • Review crosswind component and weight and balance.
  • Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.

Traffic Pattern in the SkyThe instructor will help you identify the landmarks and headings to be used for the traffic pattern practice at altitude. You will then enter this traffic pattern at a 45 degree angle, completing the Before Landing Checklist. You will then fly the remaining legs, simulating the radio calls and completing the landing checklists and configuring the airplane for landing. At a simulated ‘hard deck’ altitude, you will flare the airplane, holding the airplane’s nose just below the horizon until a power off stall is achieved. You will then recover from the stall, and execute a go-around, climbing back to the crosswind turn altitude and completing another pattern.Study Before Landing and Landing checklists

Flight Experience
Operation Expect to: Prepare by:
Preflight Inspection You will be conducting the preflight inspection. Your instructor will be asking you questions about the preflight issues you are looking for and to identify the location and purpose of different aircraft components.
Engine Start You will start the engine, using the appropriating priming procedure, check engine gauges and lean the mixture for taxi.
Taxi You will make the determination of the appropriate runway to use for takeoff. You will transmit the pre-taxi announcement on the radio, allow the airplane to roll forward with slightly more than idle power, test the brakes, and then taxi to the appropriate runway for runup.
Run-Up You will perform the run-up using the checklist. Your instructor will ask you about acceptable and unacceptable conditions for items checked during run-up.
Departure Brief You will give the departure briefing for this flight, with a departure plan to the practice area. Study the departure briefing section on your checklist.
Before Takeoff Check You will perform the before takeoff check, including the collision avoidance scan. You will transmit the takeoff announcement on the CTAF. Study the before takeoff section of your checklist, including the radio announcement for takeoff.
Normal Takeoff You will perform the takeoff. After the airplane lifts off, establish a Vx climb, then after clearing obstacles, establish a Vy climb. Complete the 1,000 AGL checklist and turn the airplane to the on-course heading. Study the takeoff section of your checklist and the first 7 pages of Chap 5 in the AFH.
Shallow Climbing Turns You will then practice turns and rudder coordination as you climb up to the practice area altitude. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Level-Off, Cruise Check, Straight and Level Level the airplane off using the sequence Pitch-Power-Trim, starting approximately 50 ft prior to the discussed altitude. Be sure to anticipate that you will need to increase forward pressure on the yoke to prevent the airplane from attempting to climb again, reducing power only once the airplane has achieved the desired low cruise airspeed, and finally trimming the airplane once the airspeed and the elevator force transmitted to the yoke and felt in your hands has stabilized. Review the cruise section of the checklist.
Slow Flight You will perform the HASEL check. You will then transition the airplane from level cruise flight to slow flight in a landing configuration (flaps extended). You will focus on maintaining heading and altitude during straight and level flight, then practice making shallow turns both to the left and right, descents and climbs. You will also practice recovering from slow flight, maintaining heading and altitude during the transition. Review the HASEL and Slow Flight maneuver checklist
Steep Turns You will perform the HASEL check. Your instructor will demonstrate establishing, maintaining and rolling out from a 45 degree banked turn, both to the left and to right.

You will then practice 720 degree 45 degree banked turns in both directions.

Review the HASEL and Steep Turn maneuver checklist
Approach Briefing You will be responsible for giving the approach briefing as you return to the airport. Study the approach briefing section of your checklist.
Descending Turns You will practice making shallow left and right descending turns. Remember to watch the nose during these turns to determine the amount of rudder input needed to keep the nose pinned on a distant object as you roll the airplane from left to right and right to left. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Pattern Entry Your instructor will coach you through performance of the before landing and landing checklists, entry on the 45, establishing downwind,
Your instructor will transmit radio broadcasts on the CTAF to give your airplane’s location and intentions as you return to the airport, enter the pattern and land.
Study the Before Landing and Landing checklists.
Normal Landing You will establish a stabilized approach, use of power to maintain a stable rate of descent. The instructor will assume control of the airplane prior to 200 AGL. You will call out when you feel the airplane should perform the level-off. Pay close attention to the nose attitude during the flare. You should be able to always see the departure end of the runway over the top of the nose.
Postflight Procedures You will taxi the airplane from the runway to the tiedown, executing the after landing checklist and shutdown checklists. Your instructor will help you push the airplane back into the tiedown, secure it, clean it and complete the post-flight section of the checklist. Study the after landing, shutdown and postflight sections of your checklist and Review Chapter 2 in the AFH.