Unit 6 – Let’s talk landings

Preflight Exercises

Complete the weight and balance portion of the Preflight Briefing Sheet.

Conduct the preflight inspection

Dry-run through the following checklists

  • Before Landing
  • Landing
  • HASEL
  • Slow Flight
  • Power Off Stall
  • Power On Stall
  • Steep Turns
Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics

Normal Landing

  • Define a stabilized approach.
  • What is your aim point for a non-precision runway?
  • What is your aim point on precision runway?
  • Describe how to read a visual glide path indicator (PAPI or VASI).
  • How should you use power during the approach to landing?
  • How should you use trim during the approach to landing?
  • When do you initiate the flare?
  • How should you use power during the flare?
  • How does ground effect affect the airplane during the flare?
  • Describe where you are looking during the flare to estimate height above the runway.
  • How do determine the aircraft’s movement and alignment while in the flare?
  • When pulling back on the yoke (elevator), how to you ensure that you are not introducing roll?
  • How do you align the longitudinal axis of the airplane with the runway centerline in the flare?
  • How do you align the airplane laterally with the runway centerline in the flare?
  • What is the desired attitude and energy state when the airplane lands?
  • How do you continue to fly the airplane after touchdown?
  • Describe the different issues that can occur during the approach to landing, including a high approach, low approach, slow final approach, high roundout, late or rapid roundout, floating during roundout, ballooning during roundout, bouncing during touchdown, porpoising, wheelbarrowing, touchdown in a drift or crab, hard landing, ground loop, and wing rising after touchdown.

Forward Slip

  • Describe the difference between a side slip and a forward slip.
  • Describe the control input and power setting needed to establish a forward slip.
  • What is the relationship between bank angle, yaw, and rate of descent?
  • Describe the sight picture of forward slip.
  • When should a forward slip transition to a stabilized approach?
  • What airspeed should maintain during a forward slip?
  • What is the maximum flap extension permitted when performing a forward slip in your airplane?

Go Around

  • When can a go around by initiated?
  • Describe the procedure for a go around.
  • Describe the left turning tendencies during a go around.
  • If a go around is initiated because of an object on the runway, how would you position the airplane.
Study Chapter 8 in the AFH








Study pages 1-20 – end of Chapter 1 in 2014 Private Pilot Test Prep

Practical Knowledge Explain these Part 91 Flight Rules:

  • 91.103 Preflight action
  • 91.107 Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.
  • 91.111 Operating near other aircraft.
  • 91.113 Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.
  • 91.119 Minimum safe altitudes: General.
  • 91.121 Altimeter settings.
  • 91.126 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class G airspace.
  • 91.127 Operating on or in the vicinity of an airport in Class E airspace.
  • 91.151 Fuel requirements for flight in VFR conditions.
  • 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums.
  • 91.159 VFR cruising altitude or flight level.

Airport/Facility Directory Quiz

  • Explain all information for Sacramento Executive Airport’s AFD entry
  • Review airport quick reference table.
Study the Part 91 Flight Rules listed to the left.

Study the legend of an Airport/Facility Directory, either using the online version or printed version.

Be able to explain the AFD entry for Sacramento Executive Airport
SAC AFD

Look up the entries for the 10 airports closest to O61, and create a quick reference table that can be printed to half sheet size for use in the cockpit. The table should include runway IDs, length, pattern direction, TPA, and frequencies. We suggest that you create this as a half-sheet size table that can be inserted into your checklist book or kneepad.

Decision Making and Risk Mgmt
  • Review crosswind component and weight and balance for flight.
  • Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.
Flight Experience
Operation Expect to: Prepare by:
Preflight Inspection You will be conducting the preflight inspection. Your instructor will be asking you questions about the preflight issues you are looking for and to identify the location and purpose of different aircraft components.
Engine Start You will start the engine, using the appropriating priming procedure, check engine gauges and lean the mixture for taxi.
Taxi You will make the determination of the appropriate runway to use for takeoff. You will transmit the pre-taxi announcement on the radio, allow the airplane to roll forward with slightly more than idle power, test the brakes, and then taxi to the appropriate runway for runup.
Run-Up You will perform the run-up using the checklist. Your instructor will ask you about acceptable and unacceptable conditions for items checked during run-up.
Departure Brief You will give the departure briefing for this flight, with a departure plan to the practice area. Study the departure briefing section on your checklist.
Before Takeoff Check You will perform the before takeoff check, including the collision avoidance scan. You will transmit the takeoff announcement on the CTAF. Study the before takeoff section of your checklist, including the radio announcement for takeoff.
Normal Takeoff You will perform the takeoff. After the airplane lifts off, establish a Vx climb, then after clearing obstacles, establish a Vy climb. Complete the 1,000 AGL checklist and turn the airplane to the on-course heading. Study the takeoff section of your checklist and the first 7 pages of Chap 5 in the AFH.
Shallow Climbing Turns You will then practice turns and rudder coordination as you climb up to the practice area altitude. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Level-Off, Cruise Check, Straight and Level Level the airplane off using the sequence Pitch-Power-Trim, starting approximately 50 ft prior to the discussed altitude. Be sure to anticipate that you will need to increase forward pressure on the yoke to prevent the airplane from attempting to climb again, reducing power only once the airplane has achieved the desired low cruise airspeed, and finally trimming the airplane once the airspeed and the elevator force transmitted to the yoke and felt in your hands has stabilized. Review the cruise section of the checklist.
Forward Slip Your instructor will demonstrate both a forward slip and side slip at altitude, using a reference line on the ground to help you visualize the aircraft’s alignment and flight path.

You will then practice establishing and recovering from sideslips and forward slips.

Traffic Pattern with Normal Takeoff and Normal Landing The instructor will demonstrate a normal takeoff, traffic pattern and normal landing.

You will then practice normal takeoffs, patterns and landings. During each approach to landing, your instructor will call for a stable check at 200 AGL.

Go Around If at any point below 200 AGL, the aircraft is not stabilized and/or a safe landing is not assured, you will initiate a go around.
Approach Briefing You will be responsible for giving the approach briefing as you return to the airport. Study the approach briefing section of your checklist.
Descending Turns You will practice making shallow left and right descending turns. Remember to watch the nose during these turns to determine the amount of rudder input needed to keep the nose pinned on a distant object as you roll the airplane from left to right and right to left. Study Chapter 3 in the AFH.
Pattern Entry Your instructor will coach you through performance of the before landing and landing checklists, entry on the 45, establishing downwind,
Your instructor will transmit radio broadcasts on the CTAF to give your airplane’s location and intentions as you return to the airport, enter the pattern and land.
Study the Before Landing and Landing checklists.
Normal Landing You will establish a stabilized approach, using power to maintain a stable rate of descent. The instructor will call for a stable check at 200 AGL. You will initiate the flare and continue to apply back pressure to hold the airplane in the landing attitude, while simultaneously decreasing the airplane’s descent rate. You will control the aircraft’s lateral alignment with aileron, longitudinal alignment with rudder, and ensure that the aircraft touches down on the centerline with no lateral drift.
Postflight Procedures You will taxi the airplane from the runway to the tiedown, executing the after landing checklist and shutdown checklists. Your instructor will help you push the airplane back into the tiedown, secure it, clean it and complete the post-flight section of the checklist. Study the after landing, shutdown and postflight sections of your checklist and Review Chapter 2 in the AFH.