Unit 2 – Stall Review and Incipient Spin Recoveries

Preflight Exercises
Obtain a weather briefing from Flight Service and 1-800-WXBRIEF for the local area.

Complete all portions of the Preflight Briefing Sheet, except for takeoff and landing performance.

Preflight the airplane using your checklist.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics Slow Flight

  • Describe slow flight.
  • Describe the forces acting on the airplane during slow flight.
  • Describe the relationship between pitch, airspeed, angle of attack and power in slow flight.


  • Why does an aerodynamic stall occur?
  • What is an accelerated stall?
  • What is the relationship between the critical angle of attack, bank angle and indicated airspeed?
  • How does power affect the indicated airspeed at which the critical angle of attach is reached?
  • Describe the indications leading up to an aerodynamic stall.
  • Describe a cross-control (skidding) stall.
  • Describe a secondary stall.
  • Describe an elevator trim tab stall.
  • Describe the set up for a power off (approach to landing) stall both straight and level and in a turn.
  • Describe the set up for a power on (departure) stall both straight and level and in a turn.


  • Why does an airplane spin?
  • Describe what causes the auto-rotation during a spin
  • Describe what occurs during an incipient spin.
  • Describe a developed spin.
  • What is the spin recovery procedure for your airplane?
  • What is the PARE spin recovery technique?
  • What will be the energy state of the airplane after recovery? How do you return the airplane to normal, straight and level flight.
  • How do you determine the direction of a spin?
  • Which instruments are useless in a spin?
  • How do you recognize the start of an incipient spin?
  • How do prevent entry into an incipient spin?
  • Are intentional spins permitted in your training airplane? Are there any category (weight) limitations?
AFH 3BReview AFH Chapter 4 Maintaining Aircraft Control Upset Prevention and Recovery Training

Systems Powerplant, Ignition, Induction

  • Describe the four cycles of an internal combustion engine.
  • Describe the engine used on your airplane.
  • Describe the gauges that are used to monitor engine performance.
  • Describe the engine controls on your airplane.
  • Describe the propeller system used on your plane.
  • Describe the induction system on your airplane.
  • Describe the purpose of oil in an aircraft engine?
  • What grade of oil is used in your airplane?
  • How is your aircraft engine cooled?
  • Describe how to lean the engine above 3,000 density altitude using the tachometer.
  • Describe how to lean the engine above 3,000 density altitude using an engine monitor.
  • Describe how to determine the correct mixture setting to be used for run-up and takeoff during a high density altitude day.
  • Describe the procedure for hand-propping an airplane.
  • Describe the procedure for starting the engine with a dead battery (using external power).
PHAK 25BReview PHAK Chapter 7 Aircraft Systems



AFH 3BReview AFH Chapter 2 Ground Operations for hand-propping procedures.



POHReview Chapter 4 in your airplane POH for starting with external power.


POHStudy Chapter 7 in your airplane POH for descriptions of the aircraft engine, ignition and induction systems.


testprepStudy the section on powerplants in your test prep course.


Watch this video on how an engine monitor provides more detailed information on the operation of the aircraft engine.

If using the 172 with the JPI EDM-700 engine monitor, watch this video.

Practical Knowledge Basic Navigation

  • Describe lines of longitude. What is their scale?
  • Describe line of latitude. What is their scale?
  • Where is 0° of longitude?
  • Where is 0° of latitude?
  • What does 120° W longitude mean?
  • What does 38° N latitude mean?
  • What is the lat/long of Modesto airport?
  • How do we use lat/long in aviation navigation?
  • What is magnetic variation?
  • What is the agonic line?
  • What is an isogonic line?
  • Where is true north?
  • Where is magnetic north?
  • What is the difference between a true course and a magnetic course?
  • Why is magnetic course more useful to you as a pilot?
  • What is the magnetic variation for flight around Cameron Park?
  • Do you add or subtract magnetic variation from a true course?
  • What is magnetic deviation?
  • How do you determine the magnetic deviation for your magnetic course for your airplane?
PHAK 25BStudy PHAK Chapter 16 Navigation
Practical Knowledge Plotter Usage

  • What is the true course from Cameron Airpark to the Modesto Airport?
  • What is the magnetic course from Cameron Airpark to the Modesto Airport? Why is there a difference?
  • How can we quickly measure a magnetic course in the cockpit?
  • What is the distance from Cameron Airpark to the Modesto Airport?
  • How can we quickly measure distance in the cockpit?
Study the How to use a navigation plotter guide.

If you need to draw a course line on both sides of the chart, instructions are printed in the top left corner of the backside of a sectional chart.

Practical Knowledge Flight Computer Usage

Using your flight computer, calculate

  • the time to fly 78 NM at 117 knots.
  • the amount of fuel burned for a 1 hour 43 minute flight at 8.3 GPH.
  • the wind correction angle (WCA) and groundspeed given our true course is 113°, the winds aloft for the cruise altitude are 030° at 14 knots, and a planned TAS of 98 knots.
  • the expected IAS if our TAS is 105 knots, the pressure altitude is 6000 ft and the OAT is 10° C.
Study the Using the E6-B Flight Computer guide.
Decision Making and Risk Mgmt Identify the missed hazards and poor decisions in the accident report you analyzed.

Review weather briefing and weight and balance for flight.

Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.

Research a general aviation accident that was stall/spin related in the NTSB accident database. Bring the accident report to the lesson.
Flight Experience
Operation Expect to:
Stalls and Spin Awareness You will practice performing:

  • Stall Recovery – recovery of first indication during approach to landing and departure stalls
  • Cross-control stall – demo and practice
  • Secondary stall – demo and practice
  • Elevator trim stall – demo and practice
  • Accelerated stall – demo and practice
  • Incipient spin entry recoveries from both left and right yaw
  • Approach to landing (power off) stalls, both straight and level and in turns – PTS
  • Departure (power on) stalls, both straight and level and in turns – PTS
Takeoffs, Landings, and Go Around
  • Normal Takeoffs
  • Normal Landings
  • Forward Slip
  • Go Around