Unit 3 – Emergency Instrument Flying


Preflight Exercises
Obtain a weather briefing from LMFSWeb and 1-800-WXBRIEF for the local area.

Complete all portions of the Preflight Briefing Sheet, except for takeoff and landing performance.

Preflight the airplane using your checklist.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Systems Vacuum System and Gyro Instruments

  • Draw a schematic of the vacuum system in your airplane
  • Which instruments are driven by vacuum?
  • What does the vacuum gauge measure?
  • What is acceptable and unacceptable vacuum pressure?
  • What would happen if vacuum pressure was less than normal?
  • What would happen if vacuum pressure was more than normal?
  • Describe how the attitude indicator works.
  • Describe how the heading indicator works.
  • What is the power source for the turn coordinator?
  • Describe how the turn coordinator works.

Pitot/Static System and instruments

  • Draw a schematic of the pitot/static system of your airplane
  • Describe how the altimeter works
  • Describe how the airspeed indicator works
  • Describe how the vertical speed indicator works
  • What would happen to your pitot/static instruments if the pitot tube was blocked?
  • What would happen to your pitot/static instruments if the static port was blocked?
  • Does your airplane’s pitot tube have a drain hole?
  • What is pitot heat used for?
PHAK 25BStudy PHAK Chapter 8 Flight Instruments





Study Chapter 7 in your airplane’s POH/AFM.



testprepStudy the section on flight instruments in your test prep course.

Practical Knowledge Emergency Instrument Flying

  • What is VFR into IMC?
  • What is CFIT?
  • If a pilot finds that they have inadvertently entered IMC, what are the pilot’s priorities, and options to return to VFR conditions?
  • Which instruments convey pitch information?
  • Which instruments convey bank information?
  • What rate of turn is indicated by the turn coordinator?
  • If you keep the turn coordinator airplane on the left turn index, how many seconds are needed to turn 180 degrees?
  • What is the difference between the ‘primary and supporting’ approach to using instruments, and the ‘control and performance’ approach?
  • Which instruments are control instruments?
  • Which instruments are performance instruments?
  • What does the term ‘instrument crosscheck’ mean?
  • Describe the different types of instrument scans? Which one do you think is best?
  • Which instrument will you primarily use when changing the attitude of the airplane?
  • What does each flight instrument indicate during straight-and-level flight?
  • What does each flight instrument indicate during a straight climb?
  • What does each flight instrument indicate during a level turn?
  • What does each flight instrument indicate during a straight descent?
AFH 3BStudy AFH Chapter 17 Emergency Procedures




IFH 15BStudy IFH Chapter 6 Airplane Attitude Instrument Flying

Decision Making and Risk Mgmt Identify the missed hazards and poor decisions in the accident report you analyzed.

Review weather briefing and weight and balance for flight.

Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.

Research a general aviation accident that was VFR into IMC related in the NTSB accident database. Bring the accident report to the lesson.

View this video on in-flight evaluation of weather

Flight Experience
Operation Expect to:
Power and Pitch Table You will create a Power and Pitch table for your training airplane.

Bring this table with you to the lesson.

Operation Airspeed Pitch Power (RPM)
Enroute Climb
Normal Cruise
Normal Descent
Basic Attitude Instrument Flying
  • Straight and Level
  • Straight Climb
  • Straight Descent
  • Level Turns
Basic Instrument Pattern
  • Straight Climb to 1,000 ft higher
  • Straight Descent to 1,000 ft lower
  • Level turn right 180 degrees
  • Straight Climb to 500 ft higher
  • Straight Descent to 500 ft lower
  • Level Turn left 180 degrees
Traffic Pattern Operations
  • Normal Takeoff
  • Normal Landing
  • Go Around
  • Forward Slip