Unit 4 – Let’s Review – Maneuvers, Ground Reference and Emergencies

Preflight Exercises
Obtain a weather briefing from LMFSWeb and 1-800-WXBRIEF for the local area.

Complete all portions of the Preflight Briefing Sheet, except for takeoff and landing performance.

Preflight the airplane using your checklist.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Aerodynamics S-Turns and Turns around a Point

  • How do you determine wind direction on the ground, when you are in the air?
  • What is the minimum and maximum altitude for ground reference maneuvers?
  • What is the appropriate power setting and airspeed for ground reference maneuvers?
  • What is the objective of S-turns?
  • What is the objective of Turns around a point?
  • What is the correct way to enter S-turns?
  • What is the correct way to enter Turns around a point?
  • Describe how you will use angle of bank to adjust for the differences in groundspeed as you fly S-Turns.
  • Describe how you will use angle of bank to adjust for the differences in groundspeed as you fly Turns around a Point.
  • What are common errors during the performance of ground reference maneuvers?
AFH 3BReview AFH Chapter 6 Ground Reference Maneuvers
Systems Fuel System

  • What grade of fuel is permitted in your airplane?
  • What color are these fuels dyed?
  • What is the maximum usable fuel for each fuel tank?
  • Draw a schematic of your airplane’s fuel system
  • Describe the function of each component in the fuel system, potential issues that may be encountered, and troubleshooting procedures.
  • Describe how fuel flows from the fuel tanks to the cylinders
  • What are possible causes of the fuel gauges reading empty?
  • Describe your airplane’s priming system.
  • If your airplane has fuel pumps, describe their function and usage.
POHStudy Chapter 7 in your airplane’s POH/AFM



PHAK 25BReview PHAK Chapter 7 Aircraft Systems

Practical Knowledge Emergencies – review procedures for:

  • Loss of power during takeoff roll.
  • Loss of power during departure.
  • Loss of power in flight.
  • Loss of power in the traffic pattern.
  • Engine fire in flight.
  • Electrical fire in flight.
  • Emergency descent.
AFH 3BReview AFH Chapter 17 Emergency Procedures



POHReview the emergency procedures in your airplane’s checklist.



POHReview Chapter 3 – Emergency Procedures in your airplane’s POH/AFM.

Practical Knowledge Pre-solo Discussion

  • What documents and endorsements do you need in order fly solo?
  • As a student pilot, can you fly solo for compensation or hire?
  • As a student pilot, can you carry passengers?
  • Explain the visibility and cloud clearance requirements that apply to student pilots when flying solo?
  • Who is the final authority as to the operation of an aircraft when you are flying solo?
  • What preflight action must you take before solo flight?
  • Before solo flight, who must you review weather and risk analysis with?
  • How far can you fly from your departure airport on a solo flight?
  • Which airports can you land at on a solo flight?
  • What is the least amount of fuel you must have in your tanks when landing?
  • What is the minimum fuel load you will depart with for solo flight?
  • Who has right-of-way when your flight path converges with another aircraft?
  • Who has right-of-way when approaching an airport for landing?
  • What is the minimum safe altitude when flying over uncongested areas? Congested areas?
  • What is the minimum safe altitude when performing airwork (steep turns, stalls, etc)?
  • What are the VFR cruise altitude rules?
  • When will you perform a go-around?
  • What are the criteria that your instructor will use to determine when you are ready to fly solo and act as PIC?
Complete the Pre-Solo Exam prior to the lesson. Bring to the lesson to review with your instructor.

FAA14 CFR Part 91 Subparts A, B & C is a useful resource to study and find answers to these questions.

testprepStudy the section on Airport Procedures and Airport Operations in your test prep course.

Study this list of criteria that your instructor will use to evaluate your readiness for solo:

  1. Make competent go/no-go decisions for every flight.
  2. Determine the location of all other traffic while in the pattern.
  3. Establish and maintain a stabilized approach.
  4. Determine wind direction and make proper rudder/aileron inputs.
  5. Manage the aircraft’s energy so landings occur at the predetermined touchdown point.
  6. Land with and then maintain the proper pitch attitude.
  7. Keep the longitudinal axis parallel to and over the runway center line.
  8. Keep the center line between the main wheels throughout all takeoffs and landings.
  9. Respond correctly and positively to any abnormality or emergency.
  10. Communicate properly and effectively with other traffic or ATC.
Decision Making and Risk Mgmt Identify the missed hazards and poor decisions in the accident report you analyzed.

Review weather briefing and weight and balance for flight.

Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.

Research a general aviation accident that was related to due to fuel exhaustion or mismanagement in the NTSB accident database. Bring the accident report to the lesson.


Flight Experience
Operation Expect to:
Slow Flight and Stalls You will practice performing:

  • Slow flight
  • Approach to landing (power off) stalls
  • Departure (power on) stalls
Performance Maneuvers
  • Steep Turns
  • Simulated high-altitude emergency
  • Emergency Descent
  • Emergency Approach to Landing
  • Loss of power during the takeoff roll
  • Loss of power during departure
  • Loss of power in the traffic pattern
  • No Flap Landing
Takeoffs, Landings, and Go Around
  • Normal Takeoffs
  • Normal Landings
  • Forward Slip
  • Go Around
Ground Reference Maneuvers
  • Rectangular course
  • S Turns
  • Turns around a Point