Unit 6 – Emergency Instrument Flying

Preflight Exercises

Obtain a weather briefing from LMFSWeb and 1-800-WXBRIEF for the local area.

Complete all portions of the Preflight Briefing Sheet.

Preflight the airplane using your checklist.

Preflight Discussion
Topic Be able to answer: Resources to study:
Systems Electrical System

  • Draw a schematic of your airplane’s electrical system.
  • What is the voltage of your airplane’s battery?
  • What is the voltage of your airplane’s alternator (generator)
  • What instruments are in the cockpit to help you monitor the health of your airplane’s electrical system?
  • What is the purpose of the voltage regulator (or alternator control unit in newer airplanes).?
  • If the alternator failed, how would you detect this? What troubleshooting steps would you take?
  • Which instruments and equipment in the airplane are powered by the electrical system?
  • Would the engine quit if the alternator and battery both stopped working?
Study Chapter 6 in the PHAK and Chapter 7 in your POH/AFM.
Practical Knowledge Compass System

  • What is the power source for the compass?
  • How do you preflight the compass?
  • Describe magnetic variation
  • Show me the isogonic line closest to our location on the sectional chart
  • What is the magnetic variation for our geographic area?
  • Describe magnetic deviation
  • Where is your airplane’s compass correction card?
  • What is the correction for north, south, east and west?
  • Describe compass accelerator error
  • Describe northerly turning error
  • If you start a turn to the left from a south heading, and desire to roll out on north, when should you initiate your rollout?
  • If you start a turn to the right from a north heading, and desire to roll out on south, when should you initiate your rollout?
  • Describe how you can use the phrase ‘LAGS ANDS LEADS’ to remember these errors
Review Compass Systems on pages 7-22 through 7-26 in the PHAK.
Unusual Attitude Recoveries

  • Which instruments will you use to determine a nose high or nose low unusual attitude?
  • Which instruments may be unreliable in an unusual attitude?
  • What are the risks during the recovery of a nose high unusual attitude?
  • What are the risks during the recovery of a nose low unusual attitude?
  • What is the recovery procedure for a nose high unusual attitude?
  • What is the recovery procedure for a nose low unusual attitude?
Study Unusual Attitude Recoveries in pages 7-26 through 7-28 of the Instrument Flying Handbook.
Air Traffic Control and Radar Services

  • Describe the services provided by clearance delivery, ground control, tower, TRACON and center?
  • Discuss these terms: Say again, Stand by, Unable, Cleared, IDENT, Say Altitude, Squawk, Report, Radar Contact, Radar Service Terminated, Negative Contact, Traffic in Sight, Maintain at or above/below
  • How would you request assistance from ATC in an emergency?
  • What are the transponder squawk codes for Emergency and Lost Communication?
  • What services can ATC provide in an emergency?
  • Describe Oakland Center’s airspace boundaries
  • Describe NorCal TRACON’s airspace boundaries
  • From where can you obtain ATC facility frequency information?
  • Describe where you should initiate communication when approaching a Class D tower? Class C tower?
  • What is the purpose of a readback?
  • What information should be included in a readback to ATC?
  • What is the radio phraseology for obtaining flight following in flight, and on the ground?
  • What is the radio phraseology for obtaining a vector from a controller?
  • What is the radio phraseology to establish communication with a tower controller for the purpose of landing?
  • What is the radio phraseology to request taxi from a ground controller?
  • What is the radio phraseology to request a takeoff clearance from a tower controller?

Complete Modules 3, 4 & 6, 8 & 9 in AOPA’s Say It Right online course. Bring your certificate to this lesson.

Study the keywords in this Excerpt of PCG.

Read the Air Traffic Management guide.

Study Chapter 11 – Communication Procedures in 2014 Private Pilot Test Prep.

Radio Navigation

  • Describe the operation of a VOR NAVAID
  • What are the different classes and reception ranges of VOR NAVAIDs?
  • Where can you look up to determine the type of VOR?
  • What are the capabilities and limitations of VOR navigation?
  • Which frequencies are used for radio navigation?
  • Describe how the components and how to interpret a NAV indicator.
  • Interpret the information boxes for the Hangtown and Sacramento VORs
  • Describe how to Tune – Identify – Check – Twist a VOR radial
  • Describe how to identify your current radial from a station.
  • Describe how to locate your position using cross radials.
  • Describe how to navigate to a station.
  • Describe how to navigate from a station.
  • Describe how to interpret CDI deviations and correct these deviations.
  • Describe the term ‘reverse sensing’? Why is this term in appropriate? What really is the issue?
  • Describe how to intercept a radial?
  • How does CDI operation change as you fly closer to a VOR NAVAID?
  • Describe station passage.

Study Radio Navigation in pages 15-21 through 15-27 of the PHAK.

Study Chapter 10 – Navigation in 2014 Private Pilot Test Prep.

Use this VOR Navigation Trainer to visualize how the CDI functions as you cross a radial and navigate to and from the station. Practice turning the OBS to determine the current radial (FR flag) and reciprocal radial (TO flag). Practice moving the aircraft to and from the station and watching the CDI display deviations.

Decision Making and Risk Mgmt

Identify the missed hazards and poor decisions in the accident report you analyzed.

Review weather briefing and weight and balance for flight.

Use the PAVE checklist to identify risks associated with the flight.

Research a general aviation accident that was due to navigation errors in the NTSB accident database. Bring the accident report to the lesson.
Flight Experience
Operation Expect to: Prepare by:
Attitude Instrument Flying
  • (IR) Left and right 180 degree turns using heading indicator
  • (IR) Left and right 180 degree turns using compass (from both N-S headings, and E-W headings)
  • (IR) Left and right 180 degree turns using timer
  • (IR) Climbing turns to assigned altitude and heading
  • (IR) Descending turns to assigned altitude and heading
  • (IR) Recovery from nose low unusual attitude
  • (IR) Recovery from nose high unusual attitude
Radio Navigation
  • (IR) Identify radial to a nearby VOR
  • (IR) Navigate to nearby VOR
  • (IR) Navigate from VOR using an outbound radial
  • (IR) Intercept a radial and navigate to the VOR
Radar Services
  • Obtain radar vectors to the nearest tower controlled airport
  • Obtain a landing clearance from the ATC tower controller
  • Obtain a taxi clearance from the ATC ground controller
  • Request flight following from the ATC ground controller
  • Obtain a takeoff clearance from the ATC tower controller
  • Accept the handoff and check in with the ATC radar controller
  • Terminate flight following when 10 miles from your destination